III. MEASURES AND POLICY INSTRUMENTS USED FOR INTEGRATION
B. Market-based instruments
3. Waste exchange
The Philippines Industrial Waste Exchange Programme was initiated in 1987 and implemented for four years in several regions, in collaboration with McGill University of Canada. Under the programme, companies listed themselves in a bulletin as suppliers or buyers of waste. Interested buyers and suppliers used the bulletin as a reference. The programme also offered other waste exchange services, such as arranging meetings and providing laboratory analysis. Since most industries were wary of submitting information on their wastes to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, the programme folded in 1991. However, a new Philippines Industrial Waste Exchange Programme was launched in late 1993, administered by Philippine Business for the Environment Inc (PBE). PBE is a non-stock, non-profit organization formed to assist business firms in making their operations supportive of environmental protection efforts. PBE developed and promotes the Philippine Business Charter for Sustainable Development (PBCSD), an instrument which encourages business firms to adopt environmentally correct practices or cleaner production strategies. Since PBE is an association of private industries dedicated to responsible environmental management, it is expected to overcome industry reluctance in disclosing firm-specific information.
Most cases of waste exchange in the Philippines have been initiated by individual firms. The most common form of exchange involves using waste as organic fertilizer.