III. ENVIRONMENT MONITORING AND URBAN PLANNING
B. Urban comprehensive environmental harnessing
2. Goals of environmental protection and the index system identified for urban comprehensive environment harnessing in ShanghaiThe main resolutions to the environmental problems in Shanghai lie in (1) treatment of industrial wastewater, domestic sewage and agricultural run-off in preventing pollution of surface water and structural water shortage; (2) prevention of the pollution of SO2, TSP and dustfall caused by the use of coal as the main energy source; (3) prevention of acid rain; (4) disposal of hazardous industrial solid waste, and (5) control of pollution caused by automobile exhaust gas.
If measures are not taken immediately, the current and future economic loss from environmental degradation will increase from l.5 billion yuan in 1993 to 4.6 billion by the year 2000. By 2005, this loss will double to 11.3 billion and reach 44.2 billion yuan by 2020. If additional economic loss is considered due to loss of bio-diversity and degradation of air and water environment, the above figure will hit 10.0 billion and 91.9 billion by 2000 and 2020 respectively. Currently, such economic loss is about 2 per cent of GDP of Shanghai.
(a) Goals in environmental protection
According to the general strategies for the urban and socio-economic development of Shanghai, the overall goal of environmental protection has been determined as follows.
By 2000, a primary framework of environmental protection which is suitable for an international metropolis should be established. On the premise that the economy continues to grow at a fast rate, this framework needs to produce a sharp reduction in pollutants by adjustment of the sectorial structure and rationalization of the urban layout along with an improvement in urban infrastructure. Environmental pollution and ecological destruction are expected to be controlled, and each environmental function zone is expected to meet its own environmental quality standards. In general, the overall quality of the environment should improve as Shanghai establishes itself as an international metropolis.
By 2010, with the deepening of the reform and opening policy, the rise
of Pudong and rejuvenation of Shanghai, development and environment should
reach a higher level of harmony. All environmental function zones will
be completely established, and the urban environment will arrive at a level
which can be identified as a modern eco-civilized metropolis where man
and nature can live in harmony.
To enhance the utilization rate of water resources, to protect drinking water sources, to curb the volume of waste water discharge, to increase the treatment rate of waste water and to reduce the discharge of industrial waste water, form the primary measures being taken to promote the water environment quality. With regard to functional zoning, the aim is to reach category II-IV of the national standard before 2000. Quality should be increased further by half a class by 2010.
Table 5. Objectives of functional zoning of water environment
By the year 2000, air quality in different functional zones will range
from class 1 - class 3 in the national standard. A half a class increase
should be achieved by 2010.
Table 6. Objectives of functional zoning of air environment
The objectives are reflected by the percentage rate achieved in meeting the national noise standards for different urban functional zones.
Table 7. Objectives of noise reduction
The primary aims are to increase the disposal rate of domestic garbage through burying, burning and fertilizer production, and to increase the disposal rate of industrial solid wastes, especially the hazardous types.
The two rates should reach 100 per cent by the year 2000.
The green coverage is projected to be 25 per cent by 2000 and 35 per cent by 2010, while the average green area per capita is to be 4 sq m by 2000 and 8 sq m by 2010.
Table 8. The index system of urban comprehensive environment harnessing
Considering the coordinated development to be achieved between socio-economy and environment, three other categories of indices, i.e. economic, social and environmental, including 13 sub-indices and 28 single indices, are identified from their counterparts in advanced cities around the world. Modifications are made when introducing them to measure the degree of coordination between economy and environment existing in Shanghai in the hope of providing direction for the long--term development plan of Shanghai.
The weights of various indices are identified employing judgment matrixes by distinguished professionals in each field, while the indices are compared to their counterparts in New York, London, Tokyo, Paris, Frankfurt, Chicago, Sydney, Toronto, Hong Kong and Singapore. After the three categories of indices and the overall index are calculated for each city mentioned above, they are classified, then the scores of Shanghai are applied to the classes to show the degree of coordinated development being achieved in Shanghai.
The following are the scores of Shanghai over the three categories of indices and overall index:
Table 9. Indices indicating the degree of coordinated development between socio-economy and environment between Shanghai and other major cities of the world
In order to identify such indices, many research results and policies are referenced. They are Socio-economic Development Strategy Leading Shanghai to 21st century, Modern Urban Planning of Shanghai in 21st century, Modern Urban Infrastructure in Shanghai and Goals in Environmental Protection in Shanghai. Table 10 shows the detailed 29 indices for 2010 spanning social, economic and environmental aspects.
Calculated from the 29 indices, the three categories of indices and overall index of Shanghai are:
Environmental index is 1.05 which is equal to that of Hong Kong and Singapore at present. That means that by 2010 the environment of Shanghai could reach the general international level of the 1990s.
Economic index is 1.58 which is higher than that of first grade international cities.
Social index is 1.11 which is between that of first grade international cities and regional international metropolises.
The overall index is 1.31 which indicates the development between the society, economy and environment could reach a satisfactory harmony.
As a result, the 29 indices provide guidelines to arrive at a balanced development in Shanghai between society, economy and environment.
Table 10. Current and planned indices indicating the coordination of social, economic and environmental development