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II. National level structures..
..for integration of environmental considerations
into economic decision making processes
|The objectives of this module are:
To present and discuss the various national level structures for
integrating environmental considerations into economic
To assess the various constraints in coordination framework at
In the same manner that there are numerous sustainable development visions in
the region, (see "sustainable
development visions in the region"), there are several different institutional set-ups throughout the region designed for integrating environmental and economic decision making.
Given the cross-sectoral nature of sustainable development goals and variation among countries in the region in terms of size, political structure, geographical condition etc, there is no "model" structure which suit all the countries. This module examines strengths and weaknesses of these various type of structures and looks at experiences of countries.
As you browse through these, the key points to keep in mind are:
- Are the institutions appropriately placed?
- Are they utilized for integrated policy making?
- Do they function efficiently?
The institutional framework itself may be an appropriately set-up but other factors (lack of human and/or financial resources, political will, etc) may deter the efficient functioning of the framework. In the Asia-Pacific Region, institutional frameworks appear to be well structured but include their actual functioning is far from effective.
It should be noted, however, that the
institutional frameworks are not mutually exclusive and there are models that
make use of several frameworks in combination. Thus more than one framework may
exist in one country.
Frameworks in the region include:
- An environment department (or unit) in a multi-functional ministry (Australia, Pacific Islands)
- A more independent environment ministry/department.
- An environmental unit (cell) in each relevant ministry/department coordinated by Ministry of Environment or another ministry. (Sri Lanka, Philippines)
- A national level commission/committee specialized in environment (often parallel to the planning commission/committee)
- A national level planning commission or committee with emphasis also on sustainable development (Philippines, China)
- An Environmental ministry/department at national level and decentralized decision making authority (e.g. local government, regional environment office) at local level; (China, Malaysia, Pakistan, India, New Zealand)
- Parliamentary system (head: a prime minister, government agencies head: ministers, staff: professional civil servants) Malaysia
Measures undertaken for institutional strengthening;
- minor adjustment to existing structure
- restructuring of agencies (including expansion of responsibility, upgrading of the agency)
- creation of new agencies.
- The process of policy formulation, programme formulation
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II. National level structures for integration of environmental considerations into economic decision making processes
- A national council/commission for sustainable development
- National level inter-ministerial coordination committees
- Role of the planning bodies in promoting sustainable development
- Role of the environment ministry, department or unit
- Role of other (sectoral) ministries
- Role of legal structures
- Role of supporting structures
- Policy formulation, programme formulation and programme implementation where cooperation among ministries is required.